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Performed the experiments: CL CM. Soil microorganisms play a key role in both plants nutrition and health. Their relation with plant varies from mutualism to parasitism, according to the balance of costs and benefits for the two partners of the interaction.
These interactions involved the liberation of plant organic compounds via rhizodeposition. Modification of atmospheric CO 2 concentration may affect rhizodeposition and as a consequence trophic interactions that bind plants and microorganisms. Positive effect of elevated CO 2 on plants are rather well known but consequences for micoorganisms and their interactions with plants are still poorly understood.
A gnotobiotic system has been developed to study the interaction between Medicago truncatula Jemalong J5 and the mutualistic bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens strain C7R12 under two atmospheric CO 2 concentrations: ambient ppm versus enriched ppm. Costs and benefits for each partner have been determined over time by measuring plant development and growth, the C and N contents of the various plant parts and the density of the bacteria in rhizosphere compartments.
Following the increase in CO 2there was a beneficial effect of P. Concerning plant reproduction, an early seed production was noticed in presence of the bacterial strain combined with increased atmospheric CO 2 conditions. Paradoxically, this transient increase in seed production was correlated with a decrease in bacterial density in the rhizosphere soil, revealing a cost of increased CO 2 for the bacterial strain.
This shift of costs-benefits ratio disappeared later during the plant growth. In conclusion, the increase in CO 2 concentration modifies transiently the cost-benefit balance in favor of the plant. These results may be explained either by a competition between the two partners or a change in bacterial physiology. The ecosystem functioning depends on the stability of many plant-microbe associations that abiotic factors can disrupt.
The interactions between plants and soil microorganisms are mainly based on trophic relationships . In mutualistic interactions, the plant supplies to microbes carbon compounds, which drive both development of microbial population and their activities . The compounds are costly to produce for each partner but these costs are balanced by the benefits.
This subtle cost-benefit balance results from a co-evolution between the two organisms  — . However, the present stability of such interactions often masks a conflict of interest between the two partners. It has been shown that some associations may be mutualistic or antagonistic according to variations in the proximate environment, biotic or abiotic, of the partners e. How modulation of environmental factors can affect the nature of the association mutualistic or parasitic remains overlooked in the case of interactions between plants and soil microorganisms.1600cc vw engine upgrades
Some studies showed that changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide CO 2 induce differential competition for other elements between plants and microorganisms  — but a potential shift in the balance of costs-benefits between the partners of the association has never been investigated. Plant-microbe association in the rhizosphere the area of soil around roots which is strongly influenced by the metabolism of the plant is hugely dependent on the plant photosynthetic rate, which determines the amount of rhizodeposits potentially used by microorganisms .
The photosynthetic rate is itself determined by abiotic factors, such as availability of soil water and soil mineral elements  mainly nitrogen and above all the atmospheric CO 2. Modulating the plant carbon budget through a variation of the atmospheric CO 2 concentration is a valuable approach to go further in the understanding of plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere.
The effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 on plants are rather well known, increasing their overall fitness  — . However, the responses of microbial component to elevated CO 2 are still poorly understood. Some studies highlighted changes in physiology and composition of microbial communities  or in a bigger bacterial density because of the increase in the carrying capacity of the rhizosphere environment due to the larger amount of rhizodeposits .Yochai Benkler, La ricchezza della rete.
Borgman, What are digital libraries? Karen Calhoun, Exploring digital libraries. Foundations, practice, prospects, London, Facet Publishing, Andrea Capaccioni, Prospettive europee di una memoria locale, in Perugia in cammino: storie che fanno la storia, a cura di Alberto Mori, Perugia, Futura.
La conoscenza come bene comune. Robert Darnton, A world digital library is coming true! Antonella De Robbio, Google Books. Thorin, Digital Washington, D.
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Current Issue. Darnton's paradigm. Reflections on the social role of digital library. Abstract The interest in digital libraries began in the early nineties of the last century, particularly in the United States.Bianchini, Carlo.
AIB studi 52 3. Bianchini, Carlo, e Mauro Guerrini. Biblioteche oggi, n. Introduzione a RDA: linee guida per rappresentare e scoprire le risorse. Milano: Bibliografica.
Danskin, Alan, e Katharine Gryspeerdt. Forassiepi, Simone.Masa nenek tidur cucu rogol
Garcia, Ageo. Guerrini, Mauro, a c. Principi di catalogazione internazionali: una piattaforma europea? Roma: AIB. Petrucciani, Alberto. International cataloguing and bibliographic control 39 2 : 23— Pinedo, Isa De, e Alberto Petrucciani. Bollettino AIB 42 3 : — Quaderni della Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Roma. Roma: Biblioteca Nazionale centrale di Roma.
Smiraglia, Richard P. International cataloguing and bibliographic control 31 2 : 26— Tillett, Barbara. Font Size. Follow us. Language Select Language English Italiano.9400i international eng warn light on
More info Hide Show all. Journal Help. Article Tools Indexing metadata. How to cite item.The study of the functional requirements of bibliographic registrations derives from the need to deal with the problems that originate from the costs and development of cataloguing data bases.
The path undertaken by IFLA for solving these aspects of the management of bibliographic information is the record analysis and its structure. FRBR is a conceptual model that describes an internationally recognized bibliographic record; it analyses the record that results from the application of the current standards and norms. FRBR goes a very long way towards satisfying the need for reflection strongly felt by the library community, but it should not be confused with a group of principles like those approved in Paris inwhich had the deliberate intention of forming new cataloguing codes.
FRBR offers no solution or proposal of solution to the enucleated problems; it is an instrument of analysis of a record and its functionality. Precisely because of this, FRBR represents an epocal watershed, inasmuch as it is an essential instrument for the elaboration process of a new way of registering bibliographic information, a new way that requires further reflection and the development of a new model for structuring records and above all a new type and concept of catalogue.
Dimensione dei caratteri. Aiuto e guida. Cruscotto Nome utente Password Ricordami. Lingua Scegli la lingua English Italiano. FRBR: analisi del record e nuovi codici di catalogazione. Full Text PDF.Bollettino AIB, vol. Trends in Italian opacs seen through the MAI.
Indeed, MAI is based on a database where Italian online catalogues are described, in terms of the kinds and localizations of the covered libraries, their searchable materials, and their interfaces. In the database, an opac is meant as the online catalogue of a defined group of libraries, and includes one or more sections such as monographs, serials, special funds, etc. Besides being the basis for MAI meta-searches, this structure allows to collect annual statistical data, which are an interesting mirror of the situation and the evolution of Italian opacs.
As at December 31,the database includes opacs, sections, and interfaces. This means 89 opacs This increasing rate has been quite constant in recent years.
Of these opacs, some are not connected to the meta-search service, due to reasons either of technical compatibility or of service convenience e. Currently there are connected opacs, meaning an increase of 25 Most opacs have a municipal coverage, i. The technical staff of CILEA continuously works in order to make MAI compatible with more opac software applications, also cooperating with the local opac staffs.
A directory of software products used in Italian opacs was recently published; another directory, gathering links to lists of serials in Italian libraries, has been maintained for many years, though currently this kind of resources tends to disappear.
From the directory of opacs, a number of interfaces are selected to produce metaopacs specialized in single domains, such as architecture, biology, slavistic studies, aerospatial sciences, public administration, or specialized in limited regions and library kinds, such as Lombard university libraries, Lombard public libraries, and school libraries. Users can access the metaopac choosing from three different interfaces.
Log data show that most users prefer the global search, instead of the selective search or the regional search. Such preference for generality affects the traffic of the searched opac servers, which receive requests even for trivial searches that could be performed in a more local scope: this is currently one of the main problems to be faced by the MAI staff.Nightforce nxs 1x8
Besides CILEA computer scientists, the staff is formed by some 30 volunteer librarians, each charged of keeping the data concerning opacs of a given region updated. This editorial work is entirely performed via Web and email; it is an interesting way to be involved in an important collaborative project, especially for young librarians who are familiar with the Internet. Though born just as a tool to gather access to the hundreds of opacs spreaded in the country, MAI has become a major service for Italian librarians and library users, and is producing valuable experience at one time on the bibliographic, the technological, and the organizational sides.
La struttura della base-dati e il lavoro della redazione consentono di ottenere dati statistici significativi, che vengono computati e pubblicati su Aib-web con cadenza annuale.
Si tratta dunque di una buona occasione per fare il punto sull'evoluzione tecnica di questo servizio e dei cataloghi italiani in genere. Claudio Gnoli. Paola Rossi cur. Paola Rossi.
Tendenze evolutive degli opac italiani visti attraverso il MAI
Paola Rossi — Marco Tomassini.For this purpose, the main implications of the two alternative criteria respectively proposed by the National Agency for the Evaluation of the University System and Research ANVUR and the National University Council Consiglio Universitario Nazionale - CUN are investigated for assessing candidates and commissioners admitted to apply for the national scientific approval of the Italian academic recruitment system.
Second, the impact of the new eligibility criteria on the academic competitions p01, p02, p03 that occurred in is simulated under the assumption that behavioral responses are absent. The findings suggest that i CUN criteria provide more selective benchmarks than ANVUR ones, and ii in the absence of behavioral responses, the new system of recruitment is expected to remarkably affect the profile of the Italian academic system. Abatemarco A. Certainty equivalent citation: generalized classes of citation indexes.
Scientometrics DOI ANVUR aCriteri e parametri di valutazione dei candidati e dei commissari dell'abilitazione nazionale scientifica. Baccini A. Uso e abuso degli indicatori bibliometrici, Il Mulino, Bologna. Bar-Ilan J. Batista P.
Becker S. Ichino A.
Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia, 63 1pp. Bonavenutra L. Burgos A. Caianelli G. XXIII 3pp. Checchi D. Bowles S. Sessione n. Durante R. Gagliarducci S. Harzing A. Hicks D. Hirsch J. Jin B. Katsaros C. Marcuzzo M. La valutazione degli economisti accademici italiani, Politica Economica, 26 3pp.
Meho L. Perotti R. Schreiber M. Tarantino E. Woeginger G. Login Create Account Admin. All papers reproduced by permission. Reproduction and distribution subject to the approval of the copyright owners.
View Item. Academic recruitment system; research assessment; citation-based indices; Italian University Reform.Berghel, E. Deaton, G. Traduzione italiana: La coda lunga. Da un mercato di massa a una massa di mercatitraduzione di Susanna Bourlot, Torino, Codice, Traduzione italiana: L'architettura del nuovo web.
Dall'inventore della rete il progetto di una comunicazione democratica, interattiva e intercreativa. Milano, Feltrinelli, Prepared for the Library of Congress. Final report, March 17 Volume 1 of The Information Age. The rise of Library 2. A white paper. Washington, D. Dalle biblioteche all'architettura delle informazioni per il Web, Milano, Hops Tecniche nuove, Technology, tradition, and the quest for balance.
I cataloghi elettronici delle biblioteche
Chicago, American Library Association, Traduzione italiana: La biblioteca come valore. GULL, C. Chaplin, A. Occasional Paper n. Dion Hinchcliffe's Web 2. Munchen, K. Saur, Traduzione italiana: Requisiti funzionali per record bibliografici : rapporto conclusivo, IFLA Study group on the functional requirements for bibliographic records, approvato dallo Standing committee della IFLA section on cataloguing, edizione italiana a cura dell'Istituto centrale per il catalogo unico delle biblioteche italiane e per le informazioni bibliografiche, Roma, ICCU, Idee, passioni, storia in Storia delle biblioteche in Italia.
Guida classificata, diretta da Mauro Guerrini.
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